​Pelvic cancer refers to a variety of cancers involving the structures and organs in the pelvis. Your pelvic area is the lower portion of the trunk of your body. It contains the pelvic bones, bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs.

Pelvic cancers that can affect both sexes include bladder cancer, anal cancer, rectal cancer, chondrosarcoma (cancer of the cartilage), and osteosarcoma (cancer of the bone). Pelvic cancer can also occur from the spread or metastasis of other cancers from different areas of the body.

Because the pelvic area contains the reproductive organs, there are pelvic cancers that can affect men and women separately. For men, this includes prostate and testicular cancer. For women, pelvic cancer can include cervical, ovarian, uterine or endometrial, vaginal, and vulvar cancer.

​Normally, old or damaged cells in your body will stop dividing and die before they can become cancerous. Healthy young cells usually replace these cells. Cancer occurs when old or damaged cells continue to divide and multiply uncontrollably. In pelvic cancer, the malignancy or cancer develops in the structures or organs of the pelvic area.

Treatment and prognosis of pelvic cancer varies depending on the type of cancer and the stage of advancement; your age, medical history, and coexisting conditions or diseases; and other factors. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. In general, diagnosis and treatment in an early stage of development, before cancer cells have spread, offers the best prognosis for a complete cure.

Pelvic cancer can lead to life-threatening complications and can be fatal, especially left undetected and untreated. Seeking regular medical careoffers the best chances of discovering pelvic cancer in its earliest, most curable stage, often before symptoms are present. If you have pelvic cancer, following your treatment plan may help reduce your risk of serious complications.


​​Symptoms of pelvic cancer vary depending on the type of cancer.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix, the organ that provides an opening between the vagina and the uterus. Generally, cervical cancer produces no symptoms in its earliest stages. Symptoms that may indicate a more advanced stage include the following:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs after sex, after menopause, or between menstrual periods
  • Foul-smelling, bloody or unusual vaginal discharge
  • Lower back pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain
  • Periods that are longer or heavier than usual

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a malignancy in one or both ovaries. Ovaries contain a woman's eggs and produce female hormones. Generally, ovarian cancer produces no symptoms in its earliest stages. When symptoms do occur, they may mimic symptoms of other diseases and may indicate a more advanced stage. Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Frequent urination or urgent need to urinate
  • Loss of appetite or feeling full quickly after eating a small amount of food
  • Nausea
  • Pelvic pain

Symptoms of Uterine or Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is a malignancy of the lining of the uterus, the pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows during pregnancy. The primary symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs after menopause, between menstrual periods, or as an excessively heavy menstrual period.

Other symptoms may include:

  • Pelvic pain or cramping, similar to menstrual pain
  • Rapidly growing fibroids and a feeling of fullness in the pelvic area
  • Unusual vaginal discharge that is watery and pink, blood-tinged, or brown in color and foul-smelling

Symptoms of Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

Vaginal cancer is a malignancy of the vaginal canal. Vulvar cancer is a malignancy of the vulva or outer folds of skin that surround the vaginal opening. Symptoms of these cancers may include:

  • Abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding
  • Blood in the urine or stool
  • Changes in the color of the vulva
  • Constipation
  • Frequent urination
  • Itching, burning or bleeding vulva
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain, especially with sexual intercourse
  • Sores, lumps or ulcers on the vulva

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a malignancy of the prostate gland, which is part of a man’s reproductive system. It is a walnut-sized gland that surrounds the urethra (tube that carries urine and semen out of the body) inside a man’s pelvis. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include:

  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Bone pain, which may indicate a more advanced stage of cancer
  • Difficulty starting to urinate or straining to urinate
  • Dribbling or leaking of urine
  • Urine stream that is slow or starts and stops

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a malignancy of the testicles, which are the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. Symptoms of testicular cancer may include:

  • Enlargement, swelling, or change in the feel of a testicle
  • Growth of breast tissue (gynecomastia)
  • Lump in a testicle
  • Pain in the lower back or lower abdomen
  • Pain, discomfort, or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • Blood in the stool or bleeding from the anus
  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Itching and discharge from the anus
  • Narrow stool
  • Pain or lumps in the anus
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain

Symptoms of Anal and Rectal Cancer

Anal cancer is a malignancy of the anus, which is the opening that allows the passage of stool. Rectal cancer is a malignancy of the rectum, the final portion of the large intestine that holds stool for elimination. Symptoms of anal and rectal cancer may include:

  • Blood in the stool or bleeding from the anus
  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Itching and discharge from the anus
  • Narrow stool
  • Pain or lumps in the anus
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain 

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a malignancy of the bladder, which is the part of your urinary system that stores urine. Symptoms of bladder cancer may include:

  • Abdominal or pelvic pain or tenderness
  • Blood in the urine
  • Bone pain
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent, urgent or painful urination
  • Incontinence
  • Unexplained weight loss

Symptoms of Chondrosarcoma and Osteosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma (cancer of the cartilage) and osteosarcoma (cancer of the bone) are cancers that occur most often in the pelvis, as well as the upper leg and shoulder. The most common symptom of these cancers is bone pain or swelling in the pelvic area.


Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

Meaning: Renal Cell Carcinoma is a Kidney Cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport waste molecules from the blood to the urine. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of Kidney Cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 90-95% of cases. It has been described as one of the deadliest of cancers affecting the genitourinary tract. It is the seventh most common cancer in men and the ninth most common in women. Inhaled tobacco smoke is clearly implicated in the Etiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma, with a strong dose-dependent increase in risk associated with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day and a substantial reduction in risk for long-term former smokers.

Line of Treatment:

CyberKnife: Radiotherapy is advised in incomplete removal or where the disease is found to be locally bulky. Conventional Radiotherapy is indicated in such cases however in operable or metatstatic Renal Cell Carcinoma CyberKnife can be used. 

Alternate:Kidney Tumors generally effect one of the two kidneys and once diagnosed is treated by surgery.

Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cancer, Transitional Cell

Meaning: Cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter is Cancer that forms in the kidney's pelvis or the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but is uncommon. As a group, Renal, Pelvis and Ureter cancers account for about 5% of all cancers of the Kidney and Upper Urinary tract. They affect men more often than women and are more common in people older than 65. The causes of this cancer are not completely known. Long-term (chronic) irritation of the kidney from harmful substances removed in the urine may be a factor.

Line of Treatment:

CyberKnife: CyberKnife is useful in advanced staged where it can be used as boost with Conventional Radiotherapy where it can decrease treatment time by 7-10 days and also aid in increasing the effective overall dose.

Alternate: When the cancer has spread outside of the Kidney or Ureter, Chemotherapy is often used. Because these tumors are similar to a form of Bladder Cancer, they are treated with a similar type of Chemotherapy.

Bladder Cancer

Meaning: Bladder Cancer effects the urinary bladder and is usually detected on evaluation for urinary complaints or blood in urine. Tobacco smoking is the main known contributor to urinary bladder Cancer; in most populations, smoking is associated with over half of bladder Cancer cases in men and one-third of cases among women.

Line of Treatment:

CyberKnife: CyberKnife can be used for a small localised disease recurrence or nodal recurrence after primary therapy.

Alternate: Surgery and or Conventional Radiothetrapy and Chemotherapy is more commonly indicated.

Prostate Cancer

Meaning: Prostate Cancer is one of the most commonly detected Cancers in male.. Prostate Cancer is cancer that occurs in a man's prostate - a small walnut-shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate Cancer usually grows slowly and initially remains confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. While some types of Prostate Cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly. With increasing awareness and screening modality by serum PSA, more and more early stage Cancer Prostates are reporting to clinic.

Line of Treatment:

CyberKnife: CyberKnife is a good alternative for early stage Prostate Cancer where it can be used as only treatment modality and can complete the therapy in 5-6 days instead of 7 weeks in Conventional Radiotherapy. CyberKnife also is useful in advanced staged where it can be used as boost with Conventional Radiotherapy where it can decrease treatment time by 7-10 days and also aid in increasing the effective overall dose. CyberKnife can also be used for metatstatic disease stage if the disease is limited and localised to small area like spine.

Alternate: Surgery was the mainstay of treatment for early stage prostate while Convenventional Radiotherapy with hormonal management.